Tarihin Jihadin Shehu Usmanu Mujaddadi Danfodio


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TARIHI DA JIHADIN SHEHU USMAN DAN FODIYO

Wasu Abubuwan Masu Alaka
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Asalin sa da kabilarsa

Shehu asalinsa Bafulatani ne da aka haifa a Maratta a cikin kasar Gobir a ranar 15 Disamba, 1754 Miladiyya. Sunan mahaifinsa Muhammadu Fodiyo. Asalinsu Fulani ne mutanen Futatoro a cikin kasar Senegal.
A wajen karni na 15 kakanninsa suka yo kaura daga Futatoro suka zo kasar Hausa a zamanin Sarkin Kano Yakubu. Kakansa shi ne Musa Jaffolo, yana daga cikin ayarin da suka zo kasar Hausa. Sun farzama cikin birnin Kwanni wanda ke cikin Jamhuriyar Nijar ta
yau. Yawanci malamai ne masu ba da karatu, sannan kuma suna karantarwa haka kuma suna ɗaukar karatu a inda suka samu malamai. Wani lokaci su kan yi aiki a fadar Sarakai ko su rika koyar da ‘ya’yan Sarakai ilimi. Suna da yawa kuma sun bazu kusan ko’ina a kasar Hausa.
Shehu ya yi karatu a wajen Mahaifinsa da kuma kawunsa, daga nan
ya yi karatu a wajen malamai masu yawa a wurare daban-daban.
Daga cikin muhimman malamansa akwai Malam Jibirila na Agadas
wanda ake zaton daga gare shi ne Shehu ya samu tasirin yin jihadi,
domin Malam Jibirila ya yi kokarin yin jihadi a kasashen Buzaye.
Shehu ya yi yawo da dama, bayan ya dawo gida sai ya kama yin
wa’azi da karantarwa a wurare irin su Gobir da Kebbi da Zamfara.
A wannan lokacin ya samu kasar Hausa na yin wasu abubuwa na
al’adun gargajiya, kamar su bori da tsafi da haɗa Musulunci da
al’adun gargajiya, saboda haka Shehu ya yi tinanin aiwatar da jihadi
don ya kawar da al’adun gargajiya daga gurɓata addinin Musulunci.
Haka kuma akwai zalinci mai yawa tsakanin Sarakuna. Duk irin
waɗannan abubuwan ne suka harzika Shehu ya sa ya yi jihadi don a
daina cuɗanya Musulunci da al’adun Maguzanci, a daina zalunci da
danne wa talakawa ‘yancinsu, a kuma daina nuna bambanci wajen
shari’a.
Wannan ya sa ya samu goyon bayan talakawa da dama, domin irin
zalincin da Sarakuna suke yi musu.
A lokacin Sarkin Gobir Bawa Jangwarzo wannan wa’azin na Shehu
ya yi tasiri gare shi, don haka ya yi ‘yan gyare-gyare a fadarsa, ya
rage haraji ya kuma umarci maza Musulmi suke yin rawani, mata
kuma suke yin lilliɓi, kana Shehu ya zama Malamin ‘ya’yansa. Irin
wannan sassauci da Bawa ya yi, Fadawa ba su ji daɗin sa ba, domin
an toshe musu waɗansu hanyoyi na samu. Ran ‘yan-bori ya ɓaci
ganin an kara wa Musulunci daraja.
Bawa ya rasu a 1796 Miladiyya, sai kaninsa Nafata ya gaje shi, da
hawansa sai Fadawa da ‘yan-bori suka kara zuga shi, don haka sai
ya soke sassaucin da Bawa ya yi, ya kara haraji aka kuma cigaba da
zalinci. Nafata ya ba da umarnin duk wanda bai gaji Musulunci ba,
karda ya shiga wanda ya shiga kuma ya fita.
Nafata bai daɗe ba ya rasu a 1802. Bayan ya mutu, sai ɗan Bawa
wato Yumfa ya gaje shi. An zaci za a samu kyakkyawan sassauci a
wurin Yumfa domin shi ɗalibin Shehu ne, to amma sai abun ma ya
kara ta’azzara, zigar Fadawa da ‘yan-bori ta kara karfi. Ya hana mata
lilliɓi ya hana maza kuma sanya rawani, sannan ya takurawa duk
wanda aka ji yana goyon bayan Shehu Usman Danfodiyo.
A shekarar 1804 , Shehu ya yi hijira daga ‘Dagel ya koma Gudu shi da
Almajiransa. A kan hanyarsu Almajiran Shehun suka yi mishi Sarkin
Musulmi, kaninsa Abdullahi Fodiyo da ɗansa Muhammadu Bello aka
yi musu Sarakunan yaki.
Bayan Shehu ya koma Gudu, sai mutane suka dinga biyo shi, ganin
haka sai Sarkin Gobir Yumfa ya yi kokarin hanawa, ya umarci
Sarakunansa da kada su bar kowa ya yi kaura zuwa wurin Shehu.
Daga nan suka shiga cika aiki, suka rika kama mutanen Shehu suna
azaftar da su, suna kwace musu dukiyoyi amma wannan bai hana
mutane zuwa wurin Shehu ba. Da Yumfa ya ga haka, sai ya ɗaura
yaki da Shehu a shekarar 1804 , ya samu Shehu a Gudu aka fara yaki
a Tafkin Kwatto inda Shehu ya yi nasara. Aka cigaba da yaki har
zuwa shekarar 1808.
Bayan birnin Alk’alawa ya faɗi, sai sauran kasashen Hausa suka
mika wuya, inda Shehu Usman Danfodiyo ya dinga ba da izini ko tuta
ga Malaman da zasu mulki waɗannan kasashen, waɗanda daga
bisani aka koma kiran kasashen tare da Malaman da aka damka wa
tuta da “Tutocin Shehu.” Wato su ne kamar haka:
TUTOCIN SHEHU.
1. Kano- Malam Suleman.
2. Katsina- Malam Umarun Dallaji.
3. Katagum- Malam Ibrahim Zaki.
4. Kazaure- Malam Dantunku.
5. Bauchi- Malam Yakubu.
6. Daura- Malam Isiyaku.
7. Adamawa- Malam Moddibo.
8. Hadeja- Malam Sambo.
9. Misau- Malam Goni Muktar.
10. Gombe- Malam Buba Yero.
11. Ilorin- Malam Abdul’alim.
12. Zazzau- Malam Musa.
An riga an fara bayyanawa a baya kaɗan cewa, Shehu Usman
Danfodiyo ya yi jihadi a kasar Hausa baki ɗayanta, inda daga bisani
ya kafa daula mai karfi a karkashin cikakken shugabancinsa. An gina
wannan daula ne bisa tsari mai inganci da adalci da kyautata ɗabi’u
da halayen jama’a. (Galadiman Daji; 2008: 5)
Shehu Usman Danfodiyo ya rasu a ranar 20 Afrilu, 1817.
IYALAN SHEHU.
Matansa:
■ Maimuna.
■ Aisha.
■ Hauwa’u.
■ Hadiza.
‘Ya’yansa:
Daga cikin ‘ya’yan Shehu Usman Danfodiyo guda 23, akwai:
■ Muhammad Bello.
■ Nana Asma’u.
■Abu Bakr Atiku.
■ Sunan Mahaifiyarsa Maimuna.
■ Sunan Mahaifinsa Mallam Muhammadu Fodiyo.
■ Sunan kaninsa Abdullahi Danfodiyo.
KAMMALAWA.
A cikin wannan rubutun, an tsakuro wani abu ne daga cikin rayuwar
Shehu Usman Danfodiyo, an tattauna a kansa. Tarihin Shehu Usman
kogi ne mai matukar girma da faɗi.

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